Note: These are half-baked ideas I’ve been turning over in my head, and should not be taken all that seriously.
Best available practice for mutually authenticated Web services (that is, both the client and the server know who the other party is) goes like this: TLS provides channel confidentiality and integrity to both parties; an X.509 certificate (countersigned by some sort of CA) offers evidence that the server is whom the client expects it to be; all resources are served from
https:// URLs, thus the channel’s integrity guarantee can be taken to apply to the content; the client identifies itself to the server with either a username and password, or a third-party identity voucher (OAuth, OpenID, etc), which is exchanged for a session cookie. Nobody can impersonate the server without either subverting a CA or stealing the server’s private key, but all of the client’s proffered credentials are bearer tokens: anyone who can read them can impersonate the client to the server, probably for an extended period. TLS’s channel confidentiality assures that no one in the middle can read the tokens, but there are an awful lot of ways they can leak at the endpoints. Security-conscious sites nowadays have been adding one-time passwords and/or computer-identifying secondary cookies, but the combination of session cookie and secondary cookie is still a bearer token (possibly you also have to masquerade the client’s IP address).
Here are some design requirements for a better scheme:
- Identify clients to servers using something that is not a bearer token: that is, even if client and server are communicating on an open (not confidential) channel, no eavesdropper gains sufficient information to impersonate client to server.
- Provide application-layer message authentication in both directions: that is, both receivers can verify that each HTTP query and response is what the sender sent, without relying on TLS’s channel integrity assurance.
- The application layer MACs should be cryptographically bound to the TLS server certificate (server→client) and the long-term client identity (when available) (client→server).
- Neither party should be able to forge MACs in the name of their peer (i.e. server does not gain ability to impersonate client to a third party, and vice versa).
- The client should not implicitly identify itself to the server when the user thinks they’re logged out.
- Must afford at least as much design flexibility to site authors as the status quo.
- Must gracefully degrade to the status quo when only one party supports the new system.
- Must minimize number of additional expensive cryptographic operations on the server.
- Must minimize server-held state.
- Must not make server administrators deal with X.509 more than they already do.
- Compromise of any key material that has to be held in online storage must not be a catastrophe.
- If we can build a foundation for getting away from the CA quagmire in here somewhere, that would be nice.
- If we can free sites from having to maintain databases of hashed passwords, that would be really nice.
The cryptographic primitives we need for this look something like:
- A dirt-cheap asymmetric (verifier cannot forge signatures) message authentication code.
- A mechanism for mutual agreement to session keys for the above MAC.
- A reasonably efficient zero-knowledge proof of identity which can be bootstrapped from existing credentials (e.g. username+password pairs).
- A way to bind one party’s contribution to the session keys to other credentials, such as the TLS shared secret, long-term client identity, and server certificate.
And here are some preliminary notes on how the protocol might work:
- New HTTP query and response headers, sent only over TLS, declare client and server willingness to participate in the new scheme, and carry the first steps of the session key agreement protocol.
- More new HTTP query and response headers sign each query and response once keys are negotiated.
- The server always binds its half of the key agreement to its TLS identity (possibly via some intermediate key).
- Upon explicit login action, the session key is renegotiated with the client identity tied in as well, and the server is provided with a zero-knowledge proof of the client’s long-term identity. This probably works via some combination of HTTP headers and new HTML form elements (
<input type="password" method="zkp">perhaps?)
- Login provides the client with a ticket which can be used for an extended period as backup for new session key negotiations (thus providing a mechanism for automatic login for new sessions). The ticket must be useless without actual knowledge of the client’s long-term identity. The server-side state associated with this ticket must not be confidential (i.e. learning it is useless to an attacker) and ideally should be no more than a list of serial numbers for currently-valid tickets for that user.
- Logout destroys the ticket by removing its serial number from the list.
I know all of this is possible except maybe the dirt-cheap asymmetric MAC, but I don’t know what cryptographers would pick for the primitives. I’m also not sure what to do to make it interoperable with OpenID etc.