Readers of this blog will probably already know that, up till the middle of last year, it was possible to
Imagine for a moment that the next time you visited an unfamiliar website and you wanted to leave a comment without creating an account, instead of one of those illegibly distorted codes that you have to type back in, you saw this:
Please click on all the chess pawns.
chessboard-example.png alt=A six-by-six checkerboard grid with chess pawns in random locations. One of the pawns is green and has a mouse-cursor arrow pointing to it.“>
As you click on the pawns, they turn green. Nifty, innit? Much easier than an illegibly distorted code. Also easy for a spambot equipped with image processing software, but it turns out the distorted codes are not that hard for spambots anymore either and probably no one’s written the necessary image processing code for this one yet. Possibly also easier on people with poor eyesight, and there could still be a link to an audio challenge for people with no eyesight.
… What’s this got to do with history sniffing? That chessboard isn’t really a CAPTCHA. All the squares have pawns on them. But each one is a hyperlink, and the pawns linked to sites you haven’t visited are being drawn in the same color as the square, so they’re invisible. You only click on the pawns you can see, of course, and so you reveal to the site which of those URLs you have visited. A little technical cleverness is required—the pawns have to be Unicode dingbats, not images; all the normal interactive behavior of hyperlinks has to be suppressed; etcetera—but nothing too difficult. I and three other researchers with CMU Silicon Valley’s Web Security Group have tested this and a few other such fake CAPTCHAs on 300 people. We found them to be practical, although you have to be careful not to make the task too hard; for details please see our paper (to be presented at the IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, aka
An attacker obviously can’t use an
interactive sniffing attack like this one to find out which sites out of the entire Alexa 10K your victim has visited—nobody’s going to work through that many chessboards—and for the same reason, deanonymization attacks that require the attacker to probe hundreds of thousands of URLs are out of reach. However, an attacker could reasonably probe a couple hundred URLs with an interactive attack, and according to Dongseok Jang’s study of actual history sniffing (paper), that’s about how many URLs real attackers want to sniff. It seems that the main thing real attackers want to know about your browsing history is which of their competitors you patronize, and that’s never going to need more than a few dozen URLs.
On the other hand, CAPTCHAs are such a hassle for users that they cause 10% to 33% attrition in conversion rates. And users don’t expect to see them on every visit to a site—just the first, usually, or each time they submit an anonymous comment. Even websites that were sniffing history when it was possible to do so automatically, and want to keep doing it, may consider that too high a price. But we can imagine similar attacks on higher-value information, where even a tiny success rate would be worth it. For instance, a malicious site could ask you to type a string of gibberish to continue—which happens to be your Amazon Web Services secret access key, IFRAMEd in from their management console. Amazon has taken steps to make this precise scenario difficult, but I’m not prepared to swear that it’s impossible, and other cloud services providers may have been less cautious.
Going forward, we also need to think carefully about how new web-platform capabilities might enable attackers to make similar end-runs around the browser’s security policies. In the aforementioned research project, we were also able to sniff history without user interaction by using a webcam to detect the color of the light reflecting off the user’s face; even with our remarkably crude image processing code this worked great as long as the user held still. It’s not terribly practical, because the user has to grant access to their webcam, and it involves putting an annoying flashing box on the screen, but it demonstrates the problem. We are particularly concerned about WebGL right now, since its
<canvas> element’s information leakage rules. Right now it’s not possible to put the rendering of a web page into a GL texture, so this couldn’t be used to snoop on browsing history, but there’s legitimate reasons to want to do that, so it might become possible in the future.